2017 九州大学 3番  西村試訳
Ecological systems are the products of the organisms that inhabit them. Q 1 訳せ。(1) All organisms, to greater or lesser degrees, interact continuously with their physical environment and with each other. In some cases, their impact on ecosystems may be disproportionate to their size. Elephants and other grazing animals have made the Serengeti plains what they are, from the characteristics of the grasses on which they tread to the chemical structure of the soil. Billions of years ago, photosynthetic bacteria created the earliest form of the atmosphere as we know it - and, not coincidentally, sparked the first Ice Age. All organisms have a constant and never-ending impact on their ecosystems.
Q 2. According to the first paragraph in this passage, the impact of "elephants and other grazing animals" and "photosynthetic bacteria" on their environments "may be disproportionate." What does "disproportionate impact" mean in this context? Explain in Japanese.

In the long span of human history, the vast majority of environmental damage has occurred in only the past three centuries. Fueled by industrialization and modernization, humans have generated large volumes of certain gases, altered the acidity of rivers, used up underground water sources, introduced alien species, and (ⅱ)impoverished landscapes as they extract and consume resources. Surprising numbers of species have been driven to extinction as human populations have grown worldwide. Human activity has clearly had an enormous effect on the natural environment.
Humans, however, are not unique in their power to reshape environments locally or globally. Burrowing rodents, for example, maintain vast grasslands rich in their favorite foods by continuously turning the soil and discouraging the growth of forests. Sheep, brought to Mexico with the European settlement, created their own grazing land through the action of their hooves on the soil. Then there are the not-so-humble roles of microbes, worms, and other invertebrates in soil formation and rejuvenation. Some plant species have redefined the conditions of natural selection for countless living things and geological processes alike. The lesson is that humans, in their effects on the environment, are on a par with many other organisms.
The key to comprehending environmental history is an understanding of the bonds that have formed between humans and other species, for these have generated co-evolutionary processes with their own logic and drive. In many ecosystems today, humans are the dominant species. But such dominance cannot exist apart from the systems and processes that sustain it. The effects of (2)environmental trauma are real, but they are a product of scale, not human exceptionalism. Although the human impact on the planet today is surely the result of human actions and behavior, this should never be confused with intention or control. Nature, much like human society, typically declines to follow the scripts we sometimes choose to write for it.
Q 5. The final paragraph includes the underlined part (2)environmental trauma to describe negative effects on nature. Which of the following (A, B, C, or D) is NOT used as an example of "environmental trauma" in this passage?
A. air composition change 空気組成の変化=大気汚染
B . animal extinction 動物の消滅=野生動物の絶滅
C . soil production 土壌生産=耕作農業 ×
D. water quality change 水質の変化=水質汚染

photosynthetic bacteria: bacteria that use sunlight to produce nutrients
burrowing rodents: animals with strong sharp front teeth that dig holes,
such as prairie dogs
invertebrates: living creatures that have no backbone.


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