[D] The concept of large culture is inadequate for explaining or predicting relationships and behaviors.
For example, without more explicit qualification of the term,
it would virtually be impossible to verify any serious hypotheses
such as that, as members of their collective culture, Japanese students are more hesitant in expressing their opinions in public than students from Western cultures.たとえば、集団文化に属している日本人の学生は、西洋文化からきた学生に比べて、みんなの前で自分の意見を開陳するのが苦手だというような仮説も

[E] The concept of 'small culture' provides an alternative model that can be used to help understand human societies. Any social group created by the cohesive behavior of its members is, by definition, a small culture. Here, social groups are not identified or determined by geographical borders or by vague concepts like ethnicity. Instead, social groups pertain to the small groups we participate in every day.「スモール・カルチャー」という概念は.人間社会の理解に利用できる代替モデルを提供してくれる。構成員の団結した行動によって運営される、どの社会集団も,当然スモ-ル・カルチャーである。この場合,社会集団は,地理的境界や民族などのあいまいな概念によって識別されたり,決定されるのではない。そうではなくて,社会集団は日々私たちが参加している、いろいろな小集団からできあがっているのである。
[F] Rather than membership in a single large culture, people in small cultures are seen as belonging to numerous groups, each one having its own small culture. On any given day, a student, for example, participates in many groups such as the group traveling by train, the homeroom, her regular lunch group of friends, activity club groups after school, and a family dinner group. 1つのラージ・カルチャーの構成員資格云々というより,むしろ,スモール・カルチャーの人々が,多数の集団に属し,それぞれが独自のスモール・カルチャーを持つと考えられる。例えば、ある日,ある学生は、電車で移動する集団、ホームルームという集団、いつも昼食を共にする友人集団、放課後の部活集団,夕食を食べる家族集団などのように,たくさんの集団に参加する。

[G] Another implication of the concept of small culture is that culture is no longer seen as static. Rules governing groups can change or evolve. A new small culture forms when there is a need to establish a group with a common purpose. Rules to regulate the group members' behavior will be unconsciously negotiated, usually based on individual members' expectations. These are drawn from their past experiences in similar cultures. Eventually, the culture will naturalize-the behavior constructed for the sake of social cohesion will become normal and taken for granted.


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