(高3) 英語入試問題演習 for Y

Outside the United States, popular conceptions typically suggest that America is characterized by an, excess of guns, an absence of laws controlling them, and a citizenry that is either ignorant of, or intentionally blind to, the serious public health costs of gun violence and the desirability of more restrictive gun regulations. From John Wayne to Arnold Schwarzenegger, certain familiar popular American cultural symbols show this particular part of the world as especially "wild" about guns. But while the number of guns in circulation in the United States IS certainly distinctive in comparative terms, this popular picture is a partial and misleading stereotype.
John WayneからArnold Schwarzeneggerにいたるまで、ある意味親しみ易く通俗的な米国のシンボルたちが教えてくれるのは、世界中でも特にこの国は銃に関する限り、特別「野蛮な」場所であるということだ。米国で出回っている銃の数は、他との比較では確かに抜きんでてはいる、しかし、このわかりやすいイメージは一方的な誤った見方(固定観念)だ。
[ ] reliable figures exist on the precise number of guns in circulation in America, partly as a
result of popular resistance to registering guns with government officials and partly due to the relative ease of importing and selling them. Even today, for example, traveling gun shows remain subject to minimal federal regulations. But most estimates suggest that almost as many guns currently exist as people in the United States, and possibly more. [ Existing guns have been estimated approximately as 250 million ] at the present time. By any standards, then, America is distinctive in the extent to which guns evidently make up a common part of the fabric of national life.
米国で出回っている銃の正確な数に関して信頼に足る数字は存在 しないが 、(それは)銃をお役所(の役人)に登録することを嫌がる人が多い結果でもあろうし、また銃の輸入や販売が比較的容易であることも手伝っているのだろう。たとえば、今でも,全国巡回銃展示即売会は州政府から本当にわずかな規制を受けているだけだ。しかし、銃の数はいろいろ推定されてはいるが、どれも、現在の米国の人口とほぼ同じだと言う、ひょっとしたらもっと多いかもしれないが。[現在のところ、出回っている銃の数はおよそ25000万丁と見積もられている。とすれば、銃が明らかに国民生活の共通の基盤を形成しているという意味において、米国は他のどの国と比較しても、特殊である。
But if America is undoubtedly full of guns, it does not lack in gun laws. [ ] notions that America lacks laws regulating the production, import, export, distribution, sale, ownership, and, use of guns, in fact more than 20,000 such laws and regulations existed by 2003. Nevertheless, the number of guns in America hasn't decreased under the famous traditional slogan "guns don't kill people, people kill people"; there are two factors behind this phenomenon. First, the overwhelming bulk of gun regulations exists at state and local, not national, level. Second, many of the laws that exist at both federal and state levels are comparatively weak in content.
The central problem that analysts of America's gun politics therefore tend to address is not why America lacks gun laws, but why the thousands that do exist are so [ ] in content. This is an especially pressing and troubling intellectual problem when two additional factors are taken into account: mass American attitudes on guns and the public health costs of private legal gun ownership.
The American public's attitude to guns is more complex and subtle than is typically imagined outside the United States. Most Americans do not own guns. By the end of the 1990s, official government statistics reported that slightly under half of all American households possessed a firearm ( this included handguns, rifles, and assault weapons ) while "only " one in six A.mericans possessed a handgun. Moreover, since opinion surveys first began to ask Americans about their attitudes toward gun control in the late 1930s, consistent and decisive public majorities have expressed support for the passage of more restrictive gun laws, particularly at the federal level.

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